Justice

1999
1999. New Law and Old Law Together | Navajo Nation. See Full Report (PDF)Abstract

For hundreds of years, the Navajo lived under a traditional justice system composed of both Navajo common law and consensus-oriented judicial procedures. The aim of the justice system was simple: to restore harmony. But beginning in 1892, with the forced introduction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Courts of Indian Offenses, this harmony began to rupture. The break was made complete with the Navajo Nation’s wholesale adoption of a western court system in 1959. Over the next 25 years, the Nation wrestled with the alienating and disempowering effects of laws and procedures inconsistent with their culture and history. Tribal members who were used to resolving their own disputes were made dependent on modern institutions, including western-style police and judiciaries. Self reliance and community participation withered. 

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1999. Tribal Court of the Grand Traverse Band | Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians. See Full Report (PDF)Abstract

Official seal of the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa  Indians.The vagaries of U.S. government policy toward American Indian nations in the 1900s had a particularly damaging effect on the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians (GTB). During various and overlapping periods, they existed as a self-governing Indian community, a non-profit corporation, and a state-recognized Band with lands held by the local county government to meet the housing needs of the immediate Indian community. Finally, in 1980, the Band obtained federal recognition and, in 1988, developed a constitutional government. 

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1994
1994. The Oglala Lakota Judiciary: Meeting Nontribal Demands and Tribal Needs | Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation . View Report (PDF)Abstract

The judicial branch of the Oglala Sioux Tribe's government suffers from both existing and potentil problems. As an institution that houses the court, the police, and the prosecuting functions of tribal governance, the problems are especially critical. Operational barriers, questions of credibility, and possibly distorted goals plague the organizations that compose the judicial system. Correcting these problems involves serious foundational restructuring. Highly recimmended optins are...

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